## Activity 1: Unveiling Soil Horizon

Objective: Observing the different horizons of soil.

## Materials Required:

• Soil sample
• Transparent container
• Distilled water
##### Procedure:
1. Collect a soil sample, ensuring it contains multiple layers.
2. Carefully place the soil sample into a transparent container.
3. Gradually pour distilled water into the container, allowing it to settle.
4. Observe the different horizons (layers) formed in the soil sample.
5. Discuss the characteristics and composition of each horizon, relating them to the suitability of crops.

## Activity 2: Absorption Capacity

Objective: Calculating the absorption capacity of soil.

## Materials Required:

• 50 mg soil
• 50 ml water
• Dropper
• Filter paper
• Funnel
##### Procedure:
1. Fold the filter paper and put it on the funnel
2. Pour the 50mg soil in the funnel
3. Measure the 50ml and keep in the containerÂ
4. Keep the funnel in the 50 ml beaker
5. Fill the dropper and release drop by in the funnel until 50 ml water is over
6. Discuss the importance of absorption capacity for plant growth and crop selection.

What’s happening?

When water is poured through the funnel containing soil, a certain amount
of water is absorbed by the soil, while the remaining gets accumulated in the
container below. In the activity, 50 gm of soil is taken. If ‘x’ is the amount of water
poured through the soil and â€˜y’ is the remaining amount of water obtained in the
container, then the rate of absorption is given by;

(x-y) / 50gm(amount of soil used)

## Activity 3: Measuring Percolation Rate

Objective: Calculating the rate of percolation of soil.

## Materials Required:

• 5 ml water
• 50 mg soil
• Syringe
• Cup
• Stopwatch
##### Procedure:
1. Place 50 mg of soil in a cup.
2. Position the cup on a flat surface and keep the syringe and remove the plunger.
3. Pour the 5 ml of water into the syringe and start the stopwatch.
4. Measure the time it takes for the water to percolate through the soil.
5. Discuss how percolation rate affects drainage and crop growth.

What’s happening?

A syringe without a plunger is placed in a beaker containing (50gm- to be confirmed)
soil and 50 mi of water is poured through it. The time taken is noted down from the
start until the water is absorbed by the soil. The rate of percolation is calculated by;

50ml (Amount of water taken) / time taken by the soil to absorb water

## Activity 4: Determining Soil pH

Objective: Finding the pH value of soil.

## Materials Required:

• Soil sample
• Water
• Nitrogen capsule
##### Procedure:
1. Collect a soil sample and place it in a container.
2. Add water to the container and mix thoroughly.
3. Open a nitrogen capsule and pour its contents into the soil-water mixture.
4. Observe any changes in color or effervescence.
5. Use pH test strips or a pH meter to determine the soil’s pH value.
6. Discuss the implications of soil pH on crop selection and nutrient availability.

# Counting in Groups

Conclusion:

Â By engaging in these hands-on activities, high school students will gain a deeper understanding of soil types, profiles, and their suitability for different crops. Encourage discussions about the importance of soil composition, absorption capacity, percolation rate, and pH value in agricultural practices. Remember, learning through experiential activities fosters curiosity and enhances students’ knowledge retention. Have fun exploring the wonders of soil science!